Q&A with Dog Expert Dr. Nicholas Dodman!


Hello everyone. Kendall here. And welcome to the
endless hangout. I’m here with Dr.
Nicholas Dodman, who is the professor at Tufts
University, veterinarian, and chief scientific
officer at Dog TV. Hey, thank you for coming. Hey, my pleasure. Good to see you. Good to see you, too. OK so hold on one second. OK, so today we are going
to have also– we’re also going to be talking
to you about dogs. Everyone has questions
for dogs [INAUDIBLE]. We have some people coming
in live that are also going to be asking
you questions. And also, we have a goody bag. And at the end of
the discussion, we’re going to be
having a winner, who’s going to win this goody bag. And in here we have
a lot of things. From frisbees, we have balls,
we have this throwing thing which a lot of dogs
absolutely love. So stick around. And later in the
show, we’re going to be announcing the winner. And yeah, so here it is. You can win this and more. OK, so first off
we’re going to be talking to Paige from Houston. And she has a couple
questions for you. So Paige, hello. Hi, how are you? Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you. So my first question is that
a breeder actually told me that muts are not actually
any healthier than pure breed and that that’s a
common misconception. And that people who
adopt muts thinking that they’re going to
be healthier than pure– it’s not actually true. And this was coming
from a breeder, so I wasn’t sure if that
was a little biased, or what the thought process
behind health concerns are with pure breeds and muts. Do you have any
thoughts on that? Yeah, she’s wrong, I’m afraid. But in fact, many
of the pure breeds have specific, pure bred
issues– not meaning to pick on, for example,
German Shepherds with their hip dysplasia, or
Cavalier King Charles with a horrible condition
called Syringomyelia, where they have fluid-filled
spaces in their brain. Their brain’s too big
for their brain case. Or seizures in certain
breeds, and other very subtle conditions– there’s a
whole bunch of things. Each pedigree seems to have
its own particular issues– atopy, which is massive
allergies in the West Highland White. And if you have a real true
mix, these genetic glitches even out, and they are,
generally speaking, much healthier. But having said that,
if you say a mix is just a mix of two breeds,
and you have two breeds that both have problems, that
first generation could have conditions affecting
either of the pure breeds. So if you’re a first
generation cross, if you’re a
Goldendoodle, you could have the problems of the
Golden with the problems of the Poodle. So a Poodle has seizures. And actually, Golden’s
can have seizures, too, and have hip dysplasia
and hypothyroidism. And you could end up with
a mixture of all of them. But if you’ve got a
real mixed breed, who’s like, mixed and mixed
and mixed so you really can’t tell what’s
in him– if you did that genetic test, at the
wisdom panel, and found out he’s got about 16 different
relatives, that dog probably would have a very low chance of
having any serious conditions. So the breeder is wrong. Thank you. Good to know. Great. They’re not all
wrong, all the time. No, thank you so much. Also, the next question
we have is actually a user-submitted question. And it’s from Kanimi. And she asks, why do
dogs seem so interested in their own waste,
especially feces, to the point of rolling
around in it or eating it? So what do you have to
say to that, eating feces? Well first of all, all of
it is perfectly natural. So one normal behavior
of the puppy’s mum, otherwise known as the
bitch, is that she– oops, there’s a bad word– No, this is purely scientific. Purely scientific–
but her job is to clean up the waste
from her puppies. And in fact, they
don’t even know how to urinate and defecate
on their own to start with, so she has to lick them
in the perianal area. And then when they produce,
to keep the nest clean, she has to remove it. And often times, that
is by eating feces. Though, if you think about
it, you’re a little puppy– you grow up and if you’re
learning any lessons from your mummy, it’s
that eating poop is good. So a lot of them will eat poop. It’s a perfectly
natural behavior. It’s not unhealthful. And it usually disappears by
the time they’re one-year-old. It might persist,
sometimes, in some others. But then the other thing–
rolling in disgusting stuff– that’s because they’re
covering themselves in the scent of another animal. And oftentimes
there’s a dead thing. Kind of like a [INAUDIBLE]. Mine will roll in dead things. And yeah, they come back
home smelling to high heaven. And then actually,
they’re very proud. And they’ve shown each
other, see what I found. They brought the
odor back with them. It’s a natural behavior. It could be something
of a disguise. Or it could be
something of a boast. So it’s kind of like telling
their story about where they were, as if–
look what I found, you guys want to check
it out kind of thing. Yeah, when you
think about it, dogs live in an olfactory world. Us humans– we have 12
million smell receptors. And they say that dogs
have close to a billion. And a scent hound may
have four billion. 12 million to 4
billion– they actually have noses that are more
sensitive than the most sensitive scientific apparatus. So they live in a
world of odors that we can only barely imagine. And to bring an odor back
and communicate that way, or to disguise an odor, this is
them doing what they’re doing. In a way, you could
also think that the odor be like a Harry Potter
invisibility cape. Oh, so it also masks
them from, say, enemies or other [INAUDIBLE]. Masking thing, and it
could be a boasting thing, like see where I’ve been. See what I found. We don’t know. But bottom line is, both those
behaviors are quite natural, as is paying attention to
things that smell, to us, pretty disgusting, like horse hoof
pairings, or horse pucky. Woops, there’s another bad word. These sort of things are
pretty natural for a dog to do. So there’s nothing wrong. Sometimes you can have
too much of a good thing. And people try
and dissuade them. So they do silly things like
giving the dog breath mints to eat or putting Tabasco sauce
on stool, which really doesn’t work, and I think Mexican dogs
find it a lot tastier that way. They might prefer the
Tabasco sauce on the stool. They might prefer it that way. What we do for that
condition actually, is if you don’t like the dog
eating its own poop, which they sometimes do, is we just put
them on a high fiber ration. And then it changes
the constituency and it’s more like eating
dry oats than something more pureed and tasty. OK, well next we actually
have Arlie from Walnut Creek. And she has a question for you. Arlie, are you there? I’m here. Hey, Arlie. Hi. Hi, Mr Dodman. Hi, how are you? I’m great. How are you? I’m good. I think I know where you live. Oh yeah? You’ve got a rescue
league there, right? I’m pretty sure we do, yeah. Yeah, I’ve been there and
talked at that place, yeah. Yeah, yeah. Tony La Russa. What was that? Tony La Russa Animal Rescue
League in Walnut something in California. Yeah, probably in
Walnut Creek, yeah. We’ve got a big animal rescue
following here, I guess. I guess so. Yeah, I have a question about
lightning and thunderstorms. We’ve had a few
recently over here. And my dog gets really upset. And I was wondering if you
had any tips to calm him down. Something like that? Yeah, I’ve got a couple. One thing– we’ve
done a study on here at the veterinary school is
actually two of the capes that you can use. We did a study on something
called the ThunderShirt– no, the Anxiety Wrap. ThunderShirt and Anxiety
Wrap work in a similar way, by pressure. And there was a 50% improvement,
or reduction of the signs. [INTERPOSING VOICES] –they worked. We did another study with a
cape called the Storm Defender. And that worked even better. It was like 70%
improvement in signs. And we even had a placebo cape
that was a sort of dummy cape. And the dogs with the Storm
Defender– which is anti static. It’s got a silver lining. And it’s usually a
kind of red magenta. They’re kind of cool. They look like a Superman cape. I put one on as soon as I
got one and ran up and down the corridor pretending. But those things do work. Other thing is you can
provide a safe place. So if you imagine if
you’re in the Midwest and there’s a tornado
coming through, a lot people have
a tornado bunker. And you go into a
place downstairs, where there’s small
windows or no windows. You’ve got music. You’ve got TV. You’ve got things to do, things
to chew, things to drink. You just go down there,
batten down the hatches. You wait for the storm to pass. We try and find a place
like that in people’s homes. And we teach the dog to
go there during the storm. But the last thing, and
this is true unfortunately, some dogs who have
it very severely– they will need medication
to help them through. And there’s two types. One of them is a sort
of background medicine along the lines of Prozac. And the other
one’s something you use in a more immediate way,
just when there’s a storm. You can use a sort
of an anti fear type drug, which is called Clonodine. So with the combination,
we can usually make some serious
progress with them and prevent them from
being so bent out of shape. Because it is a very
serious problem. And some drugs with
that will actually– if there’s a storm
when they’re alone, and they don’t know where to go,
and they don’t know what to do, and their mummy’s
not there, they will actually leap
out of a window. So somebody tells
me, my dog jumped out of a third floor window. He was a jumper. My next word is, does he
have thunderstorm phobia? Because that’s almost always the
next word out of their mouth. Oh my god. [INAUDIBLE]. So the static gets to them? Yeah, we think so. Because the thing
is I had three dogs in a row that taught me this. They were all German Shepherds. And they all weighed in
the 70 to 90 pound range. And all three of them,
during the storm, jumped into the sink. And then the next
one I had I said, does your dog jump in the sink? They said no, he
goes in the bath. And the next one– does he
go in the sink or the bath? He said no, he goes in
the shower pedestal. And then one stood in
the kids’ paddling pool, up to his ankles in water. And finally, the penny dropped. All those places are
electrical grounds, where if you stand on
them, you would discharge static electricity
from your body. And if you are wandering
around with a big fur coat on, the equivalent
of an angora sweater, and you have insulating
pads on the bottom, you will get static. And people do get shocks off
their dogs during storms. And I had one just this week. They said their dog’s hair just
stood up all fuzz with static. And they got shocks off him. If you’re charged, like
the dog, and you already don’t like the noise, and
then you touch something like a fire screen
with your nose, you’re going have
a zinger, right through a sensitive
part of your face. And you’re going to
remember that storm forever, which is why this particular
phobia usually comes down in serious shape between
the ages of five and nine. So this protective
blanket, and to make sure they have a
nice place to stay. And also, just something to calm
them down would be wonderful. Thank you, Arlie,
for your question. Thank you. So next, we have another
user-submitted question. It’s from Eric
Murray, from France. And he asks, my German Shepherd
chases shadows on the ground. And no matter what we do,
we can’t get her to stop. The strange thing is that
she not only chases shadows, she leaps and
pounces at them, as if she were trying
to kill them– never her own shadow, but only
the shadows of people. It usually happens when we have
guests over, or at parties. Do you have any insight on this? So my dog does the same thing. So what do you have
to say to that? Well, that’s a condition that
I have studied, quite a lot. And in fact, we have a
study going on right now where we’re looking
for participants. I think we have all
of the control dogs– normal German Shepherds. And remember– shepherd–
herding breeds, perhaps like yours. And they all have
very high prey drive, because that’s where herding
comes from, is high prey drive. And if they’re all dressed
up and no place to go, they will jump at something that
actually isn’t the real target. So it isn’t a sheep or
anything else to be herded. Rottweilers will do it, too,
because that’s a herding breed. They used to herd
cattle in the old days. They’ve got this desire to
chase, this predatory instinct, that must be dissipated. And if it doesn’t
have a normal outlet– if they don’t have enough
exercise, if they don’t have gainful employment, things like
fly ball or chasing things, lure coursing,
whatever, and life is kind of dull,
especially if they are genetically
predisposed, which is what our study’s about– they
will erupt into this behavior. You could argue
that some of them may have it, at least augmented,
as an attention-seeking behavior. So you can make a neutral
sound and exit stage left. Some of them you could argue
have an obsessive compulsive disorder, which
is a behavior that is performed ritualistically,
over and over again, and appears to serve
no useful function, usually stimulated a little
bit by activity and energy in the room. [INTERPOSING VOICES] [INAUDIBLE] it could
have a seizure base, too. So just giving them
something to do, something to be stimulated
by, because that’s just how they’re
releasing their energy, because they need
something to chase. You’ve got it. So the two things– if they
have obsessive compulsive, which is probably most
veterinary behaviorists, like myself, would say it’s an
obsessive compulsive disorder if it’s beyond a certain
frequency of expression. If you’ve got an OCD
going on, in people you’ve got cognitive
therapy and drug therapy. In dogs you have environmental
enrichment and drug therapy. And sometimes it’s serious. You do need to use
anti-obsessional medication. But you can try
adjusting the environment and providing more appropriate
outlets for the behavior. But on its own that often
will not be 100% effective. Yeah, my dog has the same issue. He chases shadows. And I’ll definitely try
that out [INAUDIBLE]. Yeah, and sometimes they
pounce and they bounce. Another breed that does
it, which we’re also studying genetically,
is the Border Collie. And they do the same thing. It’s another herding breed. And they jump and they pounce. And I had one that pounced
and banged his nose on the ground, on the
ground, on the ground. But his nose was bleeding. It’s like he boxed
himself in the nose. Because he really thinks
something’s there. So it’s hard [INAUDIBLE] hurt
themselves from something that they can prevent. But our next question, from
Army Girl 1991– and she asks, I just adopted
a dog, and I’m pretty sure he was abused,
because he reacts very badly to any kind of discipline. If we just give him a small
fussing, he thinks it’s a game. If we raise our voice to try
to give him a little pat, he freaks out and
cowers, and almost pees himself from fright. How can I discipline him? So how do you discipline a
dog who’s been abused before? Simple answer– you don’t. He’s had very bad
experiences in the past. He’s extremely shy. And he really doesn’t
need any more of the same. So he doesn’t need disciplining. And actually, the basis
of all modern training is you reward the
behaviors that you want. And you ignore the
behaviors you don’t want. Because the opposite of
reward is not punishment. It’s no reward. And so physical
punishment actually is really detrimental to the
dogs, and shouldn’t be done. And raising voices
is ridiculous. I think it was
Colonel Potter in MASH said to Hawkeye Pierce–
it doesn’t matter how loud you show
at the Koreans. They will not understand
what you’re saying. So is it the same
thing for dogs? They just don’t understand what
we’re yelling at the about, because they don’t know
what to do, in a way. They don’t know what to do. So you need to teach
them and show them. You don’t need– if you had
a class full of children who had been through
bad experiences, and yelling and hitting
and punishing discipline is not going to
really help them. It’s better to, before
you go into that class, read a chapter from, or a
verse from, the Desiderata. And just be really cool, and
speak quietly, and be kind, and reward any behaviors
that look like confidence. And there’s always– you can
use negative punishment– that is, withholding. You tell him to do something. And if he doesn’t do
it then he doesn’t get the reward
that was on offer. And that’s acceptable. But nothing physical. No loud voices. And I actually have a
dog who was abused, too, who was frightened of a belt. If I took my belt off at
night, he would cower. So I didn’t take it
off in front of him. If you shook a garbage
bag, he would cower, because he’d been hit in
connection with robbing the trash, I imagine. And there were a
few other things. But just by not doing it, he’s
now gained his confidence. And he’s a pretty normal dog. So just rewarding good
behavior is basically one of the main things. Because– There’s a whole school
of training now. And it’s called
positive training. But in fact, there’s some
people who still use punishment. And they call themselves
positive trainers, because there’s an element of
positive about what they do. But they’re still using
negative, punishment-based techniques. So some trainers, to
distinguish themselves, call themselves total
positive trends. And I would refer– if she
wanted to train that dog, I would refer her to a group
called the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, who
for the most part– the essence of that group
is that they are benign. And they train with kindness and
by teaching the dog what to do. OK, no, very helpful. Thank you so much. I’ll give you an example. If a dog’s barking and you
don’t want him to bark, you’ve got the two approaches. One of them is you can reward
it when he becomes silent. The other is you punish
him when he’s barking. I prefer rewarding
him when he shuts up. Yeah, because he’s like,
hey, there’s a treat in it. I’m definitely down to do it. Absolutely. So next we actually have
someone coming in, live. We have Cisco from Berkeley. Cisco, are you there? Hey, Cisco. How’s it going, man? Oh, sorry. Can you hear me? Yes. Yeah. Cool. Hi Nick. I have a question. I have a Mini Schnauzer. His name is Scruff. And he get really rowdy when
I introduce him to other dogs, because he thinks he’s a
big Schnauzer or something. How do I make him
nicer to other dogs? Because he’s a total sweetheart
to me, and to people he knows. But when it comes to
hanging with other dogs, he gets kind of crazy. Is it all other dogs, or just
a certain type of other dog? Well, there’s one dog–
my neighbor’s dog– who he’s good friends with. But all other dogs
at the park and what not he just does
not want anything to do with any of them. So when it’s very
broad like that, it’s what we would
call fear aggression. So something has happened
to him earlier in his life. And it may be lack
of socialization. And I’m not blaming you. I’m saying this would
have probably happened at the breeder’s. It could happen in– the
socialization period was originally described as
the first 10 weeks of life. People now extend it
to be the [INAUDIBLE]. So the first three
months of life– if he wasn’t actively–
wrong word, but aggressively socialized, that
would be a problem. Or he could have had bad
experiences at the hands or at the paws of other dogs. And in that case, he ends up
by being a canine misanthrope. He doesn’t trust them. And being a Schnauzer, being
a terrier-type personality, he’s not about to stand
there and take it. So he takes the offense. For him, a good offense
is the best defense. But it’s really a defensive
type of aggression that he’s being proactive. So the way you fix it
is a couple things. Number one, if he gets
tons of exercise– he’s a high energy dog. He needs to probably run his
legs off for an hour or two a day, doing fun
stuff, off leash. Number two, you can sometimes
make some dent on it by feeding a lower protein diet. Not lower than a dog needs, but
in the spectrum of normality, say for a dry food,
around 18% protein. Not 30% plus protein for
a dog with that issue. It wouldn’t matter if your
dog didn’t have an issue. But if the dog has
an issue like that, you can sometimes
turn it down a bit. But then comes
the master stroke. There’s a head halter. So if you use a
head halter on him, you can demonstrate
to him, in a language he will understand– because
he wouldn’t understand if you tried to tell him stuff. He doesn’t get it. You can’t write him a letter. Every little dog like him–
they think they’re a big dog. They’ve got a whole dog brain. But you can communicate
with him with a head halter. My favorite brand is
the Gentle Leader. So it’s basically a high-riding
neck color around his neck. It rides high up, behind
that little bony bump on the back of his skull. And it’s got the nose band. And when he walks up to
another dog, first of all you wouldn’t stick him right
in the other dog’s face. But he sees another dog and he
starts to act out a little bit, you just apply very
gentle upper tension, which puts pressure
over the muzzle, which is how mummy dog would
communicate with her babies to say stop it. And then it puts
pressure on the nape of the neck, which is where the
mummy dog would grab a puppy to lift it from place to place. It causes relaxation. You just the
tension on, until he does what you want him to
do, release the tension, and praise him. And we do this three
times a week, maybe more. And we see dogs change from
being feisty and aggressive to other dogs into
being totally malleable. The control you
get is immediate. The learning, on his part,
could take two or four months. And there would probably
always be some bad offenders who he had an issue with. Failing that, and
the only other thing you can do– and hate to
keep talking about this on this hangout– but you
can sometimes use medication to get an unfair
advantage, going forward. And there are some things that
will make him a little bit more confidence, and therefore
less aggressive, which are pretty harmless. And they don’t work by sedating. So there are things in
that direction, too. Is this more like a natural–
kind of like a nuzzle. Something his mom would do
would probably help out a lot. Thank you so much, Cisco. All right, thank you. Bye Cisco. So next, we have another
user-submitted question. And this is from Lou. And they say, my dog
drinks a whole lot of water before he sleeps at night. Is that normal? Is that normal? Drink a whole bunch of water,
he must be really thirsty. Well what’s really
important is how much water he’s drinking per day. So sometimes it can be an
issue– medical problem. So it’s not that easy to
measure how much water a dog drinks in the day. You’ve got to close all the
toilet seats, for a start. If you’ve got more than one
animal, that’s another problem. But if you measure
what you put out and you measure it
in pints or cups, depending on the
weight of the dog you take– well
I’m talking metric. But if a dog weighs–
average dog– 45 pounds is 20 kilograms,
you multiply by say 60, 20 times 60, and you’ve got
the number of milliliters, we you can convert
into liters, that’s how much he should
drink per day. There are some things
that change it, like if he’s very
hot and he’s panting, or if he’s having dry
food versus wet food. You’ve got to allow
for the water in that. But if he’s drinking
the right amount, it doesn’t really
matter if he happens to have a big thirst at night. It’s just his
particular way of being. But it could be the fact
that this owner has gone out of their way to comment on the
huge amount– not just going for a quick sip of water
but huge, sucking down the whole thing– it
could be a problem. And it could be– if he’s
an older dog, or even a young dong, perhaps
kidney disease. It could be diabetes
of some sort. [INAUDIBLE] more
serious than we think. So there could be
something serious. But it’s the total
amount of water per day would decide whether
it was just a quirk or whether it was
a medical issue. So what if a dog doesn’t
drink enough water? I’ve heard of ways
like sneaking water in food, mixing it with food. They’ll drink more
water that way. Yeah, there’s tricks. You put some salt
on his food and make him more thirsty and stuff. But it’s good to ask the
question why, first of all. Because you
shouldn’t really have to convince a dog to drink. He’s got part of
his brain operates to tell him my blood
is too concentrated. I need to drink some water. So I don’t know. Maybe they’re feeding a
high-salt food at 7 o’clock at night. And then he gets a wicked
druth, they say in Scotland, where I used to come from. A druth is a big thirst. It needs a little bit more
exploration, I’m saying. There’s too much of a druth. So we have another question. It’s Jennifer from
Dallas, Texas. And she says, what
should you do when you come across a territorial
dog who is not on a leash. So how do you
control your dog when there’s another
feisty dog nearby? Well that can be tricky. So one thing
probably not to do is to run, because he will come
after you, if he’s territorial. Fortunately, a lot
of the dogs who have issues with territoriality
are a bit scared. And once again, I don’t mean
to pick on German Shepherds. German Shepherds, and
herding dogs in general, tend to have issues
with territoriality. And if you just turn and face
them and stand your ground, with hands to the side,
no yelling, no waving, no nothing– you could
even grab a coat, just in case they lunge. If you’re wearing a
coat, take it off, and it’s like something, if they
did jump, they can bite that , instead of you. Yeah, like bull fighters. You really want
to turn to stone. And actually, I’m not
only the president of the hair club for
man, but [INAUDIBLE] sufferer, so to speak. But actually this
happened to me. I was jogging. And out came this dog, like
a shark, out from a house. And I saw him come. And I had a feeling his
beady eyes were on me. And as I was jogging along,
I almost felt his presence. So at the last minute,
I just spun around and made like a monster, and
just stood there, like this. And he went wee, wee, wee,
and ran all the way home. Well, what happens
when you have a dog, and your dog’s on
the leash with you, but you don’t know
how your dog’s going to react to the other
dog that’s not on a leash. Do you pick them up, if it’s
a smaller dog, or how do you? Well this is
irresponsible people who have a dog who might be
aggressive, who is territorial, who’s off leash, and there’s
leash laws everywhere, and you’re walking along. It’s very difficult to do. There is a thing you can buy to
protect yourself and your dog. And it’s called Direct Stop. And it’s a citronella spray. And it shoots out. It’s a bit like a mace spray. So if you really have your back
against the wall, so to speak, and there’s an off-leash
dog encroaching on you and your
dog, you can always try spraying him in the
face with citronella. It goes about 10 feet. So just something [INAUDIBLE]
protect would be good. Yeah. Well, next we have John
O. from San Francisco, who has a question for you. John O., are you there? Hi, can you guys hear me? I can hear you. Hi, John. Hi. I was wondering– I have
a cat and a dog at home. And I was wondering,
what are your thoughts on me feeding them raw meat? Well, I’ll tell you that
the endpoint of that story is that in our hospital,
at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine,
or Tufts Cummings School, raw food is banned. We have three nutritionists,
one with a PhD. All of them have DVMs. All of them are board
certified in nutrition. And they actually explain the
myths associated with feed a raw diet– that th
they can handle it, because their stomach
acid is stronger– wrong. They have a shorter
gastrointestinal tract– wrong. They’re carnivores– wrong. Meat is safe when
it’s frozen– wrong. They just go through
this whole list. I hand it out clients sometimes. Wrong, wrong, wrong. One of the reasons they
don’t allow us to feed it is because it’s not only
potentially bad for the dog, but it’s very bad for
the people handling it. It’s like handling raw
chicken or something. If you went– 50% of all the
chicken in the supermarket is contaminated with either
salmonella or campylobacter. If you started
eating raw chicken, you’d pretty soon get sick. I’m afraid I did
poison one of my kids once, when I didn’t cook the
chicken properly on the grill. And your dog is just
running the gauntlet. And the thing is, they
may go for several years and just it’s like Russian
roulette, being OK. And then suddenly they get sick. Or maybe you’re just
not even realizing it. Your dog has diarrhea or,
quote, sensitive stomach, every so often. So raw food really–
according to nutritionists, which I am not. But I listen to people–
not people who don’t know. I listen to people who do know. And for me, if you
have a DVM, a PhD, and you’re board
certified in nutrition, and you’ve researched
the subject, and you’re a full
professor, it’s probably better
to listen to them than the breeder or
the guy next door. So they’re not like their
relatives, the wolves, or anything. They can’t eat raw food. That’s really interesting. Well wolves are a
different kettle of fish. First of all, they
are carnivores. Dogs have evolved
with us as omnivores. And in fact, they did a
study into the difference between wolves and dogs and
what is the genetic difference. There’s only one
difference that emerged, in a study done just down the
road here at Broad Institute, and that is dogs have genes
that allow them to metabolize carbohydrates, which
wolves don’t have. So that as they’ve evolved
with us, it’s the same as us. They’ve evolved to be able
to handle grains and carbos. So they don’t just eat meat. They need a balanced diet. OK, well thank you so much,
John O. for your question. Thanks, John. Thank you. All right, so– [INAUDIBLE] So we have actually
reached the point where we’re going to announce
the winner of this whole bag of doggy awesomeness. And the winner– Was it me? Did I win? Well, maybe. [INAUDIBLE] if you want. OK, so we have a drum
roll of who the winner is. I don’t know if you can hear it. But the winner is
going to be Hugo2dog. So Hugo2dog, wherever
you are, please email [email protected]
and we will send you your prize with your address. And in here we
have– OK, so this is a chuck it,
which is a thing you can do to have your
dog fetch and not have to touch the gross
ball and everything. It’s really awesome. I know dogs get really
excited about that. So many things. We have– what else
do we have here? We have a bone, which is
like a tree branch bone. And we have lots of toys
and lots of awesome stuff. So please email
[email protected] to redeem your prize. OK, and thank you so
much, Nicholas Dodman. It was wonderful
speaking with you. And thank you for answering
all these questions about dogs, from feces eating to lights ,
and just basically making dogs well behaved in general. It’s actually a lot more
simple than you think, if you get in the
mind of the dog. Thanks, Kendall. Thank you. Also, make sure you watch
Dog TV, which is actually a channel where
dogs can watch TV. And subscribe to Animalist,
if you haven’t already. And you can also
follow us on @animalist on Twitter and
Instagram, and like Animalist Network on Facebook. So thank you so much, everyone. It was wonderful talking to you.

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