100 Years German Air And Space Flight – Space Documentary


the first and most reliable way to fly is to let imagination soar in the beginning flying with something for adventures to do on a dare dreamers I’m ears aviators and resourceful scientists set a course for Air and Space Flight far into the future passion unique discoveries and or inspiring inventions set the standard for the vision of flight preparing to make that first big-league required the acquisition of a better even know how it all began with the bold quest of an engineer from Berlin heartily entire Leontine took to the air with hang glider’s he made himself the flights was short-lived impalpable they have our finding bass is the identical or nearly entire wanted to find out exactly how birds flew on that so if you watched that orbit longer matters then business after the guns that’s it using a scientific approach he augmented the observations with his own experiments amor 54 that’s what we decided him to become the first researcher to explain how propulsion worked targets and vegetable held it until then it was a real riddle likely answer current beforehand course behind this experimentation was ascending leavin town study the characteristics of bird’s wings such as stocks for example observation led him to make a key discovery stalks gently arched wings produce the lowest resistance and the greatest lift million tile was laying the groundwork for new invention flight was merely a step away taking off into the wind worked just visited for birds in 1891 million time flew 15 meters soon he was making flights of up to 300 meters until August the ninth 1896 when he fell to his death probably trying to best his own record in 1900 imperial germany is bustling technologically advanced great power of the top of the Telegraph revolutionizes communication and since the beat for Germany spin through the exciting days of the avant-garde rail lines link one corner of the country to the other and the gramophone is popular in the coming years 23 nobel prizes are awarded to german scientists car racing becomes all the rage and count Ferdinand von Zeppelin is soaring high above Lake Constance the conquest of the skies is starting in 1907 the model airship testing institute is set up at getting in the first institution devoted to avian research is equipped with a closed wind tunnel designed to investigate the problems of flight an electrically powered fan is used to generate a current of air inside a large tube motors and propellers are designed and specially made for the unique piece of testing equipment the wind tunnel is the first-of-its-kind and marks a milestone in the history of this type of testing technology the first experiments are carried out under conditions of control airflow Thomas about does not need premium flukes are you at the time ashes rather than planes was really little passion of light enthusiasts movie fortunate enough to food at the turn of the century zeppelins were already recognized means of air transport for keys middle daughter iftar on most there was little knowledge of aerodynamic laws what was the shape that would optimize the movement of an airship through the air co-op tomorrow to lift to being the real work begins with the first measurements which had taken after a turbulence free air flow suitable for experimental purposes and successfully generated in the tunnel among the data recorded our drag air flows and pressure distribution the optimal shape for an aircraft remains a mystery ship designer albus fun parts about is the first commissioned the Institute to investigate and develop ways to improve the air worthiness of his craft passive out draws attention by making experimental flight little longer than one hour on the eve of World War One Germany leads the world in the development of dirigibles love to florence and the machine guns on the Schiele before 1910 airships would build every which way some were pointed at the prow others at the stern some look like cigars that long ones short ones every possible shape and size were represented in missing and after the data were gathered and assess getting in all the world airships look the same it was slightly rounded at the front and gently pointed at the rear some superscripts balloon races become fashionable the controversy over whether something heavier than air will ever fly begins in earnest the dispute does nothing to dampen spirits aims remain hi I’m quite well fuel and envelope for France and a head start when it came to aviation research that’s my germany had to catch up and managed it with the help of people like can’t settlin material phenom so heavy was his reputation that it was lighter than air based on this and a wealth of experience he became the person who set the tone for the future and can be credited with putting the study of light on an institutionalized scientific footing that of Institute’s you ned martin motorized flight is not far off after thoroughly studying million towns work to American designers the Wright brothers become the first to make a motorized flight in 1903 in a craft that is heavier than air many are willing to risk life limb and becoming a laughingstock an experiment after experiment often their contraptions do everything that produce the desired result the idea of flight sends the fancies of dreamers inventors and serious aficionados soaring leading many of them to be scored by others as visionary lunatics in 1904 the hydrodynamic engineer big hunter makes a startling discovery that revolutionizes the up-and-coming new science of aerodynamics he describes the boundary layer we’re all air flow changes occur the discovery brings panel recognition from all over the world including Russia and later the u.s. then in 1909 planters made the world’s first professor of airship flight his scientific writing such as the wing or lifting line theory create a huge stir and become one of the key cornerstones of aerodynamics of the credential is kishi the boundary layer is in immediate contact with an object surface of lifted i was your greater the distance from the surface for more layer conforms to its surroundings here wouldn’t give them unglazed as Madame are considered mathematically the boundary layer is a bit of a simplification loudly panting like this trick in 1904 to calculate and described numerically currents along the surfaces of different objects from couple of licking mathematics behind second scientists of aerodynamics me to the world’s first aeronautics Congress in getting in 1911 it’s one of the first times that the benefits science could have for aviation are discussed in an open scientific forum aerodynamics and the mechanics of flight or addressed in the same year a student of planter’s killed off on common publishes his theory of vortex treats the swirling motion of gases behind an object after they’ve moved over it air shows are the latest diversion to get their thrills Berlin residents front to the quiet suburb of your highness tile on Sundays in 1909 flyers the obsessed and Tara ways you excited spectators the show they want to see in the skies above one of the first German airfields to feature motorized planes even the Wright brothers are buzzing Europe Crown Prince Wilhelm here speaking to orville wright is impressed on some days more than half a million viewers attend aviation pioneers began to put their homemade machines against each other fortunes in prizes go to the fastest flyers the imperial court and Industry office stakes as high as forty thousand marks in gold in computing yard during the early years of light progress came as a result of trial-and-error you built a plane knowing it needed an undercarriage and two wings segment with that beyond that everything considerations like how fix the wings would be or what would create the least drag was a big gray area nebulous and unknown call neighbor Lewis and lubricant airbus slide in the nagar everyone was tinkering around in their workshops and sheds here thought your mechanical skill became the means to pursue the dream of building a flying machine but without any scientific qualifications they simply made contraptions and then try to see if they would fly london and far too poor be open up its then gear clattering flying machines have been charms French British and American inventors stole the show from the German aviators to begin with the spirit of flying competitions was still sporting but only just the food side keep this experimental is get through early on there were a number of experiments meaningful countless admittedly claims with the engine back some had five six or seven wings they tried everything the times were creative and nobody knew exactly where it was all heading we can see I lists can see also standard didn’t find anyone was free to experiment with the risks were high loadings experimenting with attempt to discover their ideas really worked cost many early airplane builders their lives wouldn’t send to Italy for good aviation pioneer hunts card removes Germany back into the spotlight by winning the Lance aviation prize in 1909 the triumph helps the country regain ground Germany needs to make up to win glad had to fire a horizontal figure-of-eight some two and a half kilometers in length all parts of the aircraft had to be from Germany and the planes builder and pilot had to be German as well in trident and Indian outside the technological aliens were spurred by ready cash that’s what’s this guilt fine are in Germany had registered that aircraft were being built in all the neighboring countries and funk even France known to some as a hereditary enemy had already built many planes on us we didn’t have a thing engineer it is in fact it’s a simple technical fact understood by every engineer and scientist if the money’s there then research will progress soon there was discussion about whether the entire development shouldn’t take place under the auspices of a larger scientific organization a scientific institution had to be set up to address these questions if which I previously and tackled by in flight experiment is fine feeling how is completely up the german aviation testing facility or DVL is set up with the signing of a certificate in 1912 the compound at atlas wolf becomes the aviation research center of the nearby german imperial capital Berlin notes and but smooth guy 1912 he began to build research institutes at breakneck speed not just hangers and airfields but wind tunnels and testing weeks four engines with all levels of horsepower in war-torn police wonderful little lace thongs a large concentration of research hardware and personnel were located here lets you and that did nothing to avoid synergies with other research establishments while it remained a place where one could were relatively independently let’s Ave a veteran aviator and airship pilot major golf on Trudy becomes the director of the nearby airfield johannes tile the landscape the mark becomes a home for Department engaged in research in the physics and technology of flight in addition to the site for a number of tests reeks engine overheating played the early years of flight some of the best known aircraft makers of the time settle near the gates of the dl compound to improve their craft through systematic application of scientific research and establish a link between industry and research the military expresses its interests as well war breaks out in august 1914 claims become weapons for generals to deploy more maneuverable faster and with a far better vantage point the aircraft replaces the cavalry as a reconnaissance tool contemporary heroes are a moment burger and Odette the day of the elite fighter pilot Dawn’s conquering the skies is taken literally research is now done in the name of war fighter production begins and the first one seat of planes delivered to the front men like man fondly tool from the Red Baron fight their way to fame and fortune the age of the flying ace has arrived bombers and gunships are built and increasingly deployed again strategic targets new plans are made to build a larger research compound equipped with bigger wind tunnels in 1916 a model testing establishment for aerodynamics the mva is built in getting an innocent little creek during World War one military resources we used to drastically enlarge the research establishment at getting ends with mental disabilities bond and a much larger wind tunnel was built there about and in both a small and a new larger tunnel series of experiments were carried out on wing cross sections airfoils itself on from talk free perfume in vinton are for missin this is seen from an empirical standpoint this was the start of the scientific study of aerodynamics dynamic the new tunnel is state-of-the-art a model for similar testing facilities the world over it produces wind speeds of up to 180 kilometers an hour and lends its name to all subsequent wind tunnels like it the gutting and type including of in Kannada number of airfoils designed and developed by different aircraft makers were tested in the getting and wind tunnel these fruity profiler wouldn’t in anonymity of the form results for the different airfoils were published in anonymous technical reports indicated so that one manufacturer wouldn’t know what another competitor had developed a fluke trick here Stella least if one of us really even current and so of log arm in getting hot movies in getting and they simply number the airfoils and tested them and some of their own different designs sometimes varying them slightly or and then recorded the aerodynamic data fiscal during the first world war the data was stored in files that were either secret or accessible solely to the manufacturer that had created the design portion swimmingly 14 finished wing templates drop gettin become the industry standard for decades to come anyone anywhere in the world who wants to build an aircraft uses them as a guide the name getting and goes down in aviation research history testing wings by loading them with sand sacks and 42 troops leads to the development of a new branch of research aeroelasticity a model train pulls the test rig in the getting and wind tunnel a life-size version of the experiment is conducted later south of berlin on the military railway between 2000 and you to bog did later south of berlin on the military railway between sawsan and you to bog engine and propeller test rigs run on Rails assessments are conducted under outdoor conditions similar to those faced by an aircraft in flight aerodynamic shaving of wings use a large propeller and other parts of the plane certain types of engine are the scientific fruits of world war one they might lady seat if you consider the change in the look of planes between 1914-1918 it really becomes clear that it majorly had taken place 1918 vintage planes flew considerably higher or faster and could carry greater loads bombs in this case by the end of the war flame designs and technologies had like a good wine matured and improved with age focker builds the first one seater monoplane fighter and google Yonkers makes the prevalence of wood as a material for building aircraft a thing of the past when he builds the j1 the world’s first metal playing but aviation progress did nothing to avert Germany’s defeat in the war the armistice was signed on November the 11th 1918 the nineteen-twenties roars into life as Europe recovers from the wall everything is new exciting and ever so modern it seems the whole world is a big dance hall but in the treaty of versailles the winners of the war hand germany the bill for its earlier aggression the country’s aircraft a scrapped what the Allied forces prison France and the u.s. don’t need is decommissioned dismantled and destroyed even aircraft engines end up on the scrap heap soon the hangers are empty German aircraft and never again to be used to wage war competitive German plane makers are closed down but the setback becomes a turning point now experiments in getting in a focused on completely different models the streamlines one player tops and how tall is tested in 1921 so it’s more than six decades ahead of its time the low wind resistance multi passenger car is never mass-produced strain is also subjected to the artificial stream of air and drag measurements are taken for diamond racing cars clad in streamlined howls the cars later reach speeds of a hundred 90 km/h the wind tunnel is also used to prepare initial designs and prototypes for gliders the Aviators have found a loophole in the restrictions placed on them by the Allies the treaty of versailles mentions motorized flight only theater feeling yeah what do you mean we’re grounded and possible when the ban on motorized flight in the Versailles Treaty he led to the start of a great new developments in aviation the glider and offices aficionados and experts met on the vasa copper and fungal Mundy looking at these contraptions made of nothing more than wooden sparse and stretch cloth it’s really amazing that they actually flew some 200 to 300 meters and stayed up in the air for a minute or two for border because sometimes banning an activity can have unforeseen effect that have little to do with a band’s original purpose while one activity is stamped out something else brings up in its place is gliding is the sole option left to Germany’s aviators but x 1920 they are already holding the first gliding competitions in the skies above the highest peak in the Blue Mountains the vasa corporate just projected Indian fellow dynamic the project in this case was to develop aerodynamic specifications for gliders scientific foundation for soaring was to be laid that would address meteorology in particular and the knowledge of air currents which are both heat of lighting for long distances this clearly demonstrates how gliding became a vital component of aviation research seafood from Luke are dr. love taught for sure what a short time later German pilots are able to resume powered flight mail and passenger services are among the first to take off the first airlines are opened door near builds its famous flying boat the vile whale the plane makes history when in 1926 it becomes the first aircraft across the South Atlantic the Yonkers f13 becomes the first passenger aircraft in the world to be built out of metal with it is a workhorse the newly-established German airline Lufthansa gains preeminence in the skies an unintended consequence of the versailles treaty is that Germany is able to successfully build planes that are aerodynamically superior because they may only be powered by relatively weak motors in 1924 construction begins on the new building at the kaiser wilhelm institute in getting and since 1920 the mva has been known as the aerodynamic testing facility or a VA plans unveiled in 1928 for another wind tunnel the measurement area is to be four and a half by seven meters in size one of the biggest of its kind of the time a few years later the first specialized wind tunnels able to generate wind speeds in excess of 900 kilometers an hour a built-in armoires offers been equipped with additional motor and propeller testing Rick’s by the end of the nineteen twenties the facilities are also used to assess the air worthiness of aircraft in a sort of standardized mot for planes dressed in an elegant suit as the Irving came all the way from Buffalo New York to test his heir shoot or freefall parachute after tests at your hostile airfield the new invention was certified safe in 1929 during World War One friars rejected parachutes as being beneath their honor but by 1930 they were being used by more than 40 air forces by sep tember 1930 a group of imaginative innovative individuals cause a commotion by taking aim at the Stars a group of pioneering daredevil enthusiastic hobbyists begin carrying out dangerous combustion experiments with liquid-fueled rockets ranging from visionary to crackpot they’re United in the hope that they will soon send rockets into space the for parade ground in Berlin’s table district becomes the proving ground for these completely unpredictable flying objects dump it at home but I can organize the idea of interplanetary space flight wasn’t just being bandied about it was extraordinarily popular it’s got there were big fan clubs with large memberships and comprehensive literature that from a cosmic standpoint was actually very far-reaching Azir above my flights to Mars were discussed as we’re types of satellites that we can’t even now imagine they were visionaries that’s volunteers you’re near the fire more than 100 rockets into the skies about Berlin known sardonically two summers the table fools these hobbyists are setting the foundations for space travel is located about 20 NM compensatory instead of rockets were and that’s with a loss of national and government power point there in diet leading German scientists were thinking about spaceflight just might think Duncan the title of hamon orbits trailblazing work showed where things were headed the rocket into interplanetary space is completely Keaton there are loads of rocketry clubs amateur rocket builds associations rocket mania was widespread among the general population Fritz Lang’s films were right on target in time an easy guess if you’re into funny theater Rockets worthy thing in germany in the 1920s opens rocket car was another example this enthusiasm with something scientists could build on it off bonding people everywhere seem crazy about rockets not only in the skies over brandenburg gate on the road even one of Germany’s greatest automobile makers of the time fits 10 / wants a piece of the action the physicist and space flight pioneer maxvalue conceives of a car capable of explosive speeds and open is to drive it forget the engine the popular rack to is powered by 24 solid Rockets 3000 excited Berlin residents come out to see a test drive the show is short and sweet the trip takes two minutes with the rack to reaching speeds of 200 km/h their demands to step it up a notch designers produce a rocket-powered car on rails but they didn’t ask anyone not even for its 10 people to drive it a cat is placed at the helm some 300 kilograms of dynamite golf with a big bang for the record and comforting note says that can survive with minor injuries one young Berlin rocket man is going to make a name for himself in the future verifone plans career begins when he takes a job as an experimental site in Coast off south of berlin it’s 1933 and preparations for the military use of rockets is getting underway commissioned by the office of military armaments the task was to test rocket engines for use in missiles air travel gets a majestic boost when an aircraft the Dornier dou X becomes the pride of the country crazy about flight the world’s largest aircraft the colossal plane seats are hundred sixty passengers in an unparalleled triumph the technical wonder arrived in new york city from germany on almost 27 1931 the Yonkers w33 also rose to fame when it crossed the Atlantic some say its flight Golden Age highlighted by many new designs and developments such as the Yonkers g 38 germany is again the mecca of aviation research experiments are promoted by the state but science retains its independence an enormous concrete egg is built in atlas or it’s a vertical wind tunnel to be used to assess what forces due to an aircraft in a spin it’s also to help determine what causes planes to crash for seemingly no reason that’s why is in its head and these were tough times for aviation the technical possibilities of flight went far beyond human capabilities to control them so it was decided to set up scientific establishment where it would be possible to investigate scenarios under controlled laboratory conditions before disaster struck hard with all operating on two and also an indictment I don’t that’s why they built the vertical wind tunnel to learn more about the dangers of the flat spin wouldn’t is entrusted to orphan the ground is rushing up on a free-falling plane DVL test pilot we shot earlier is in the cockpit it’s up to him to experience the reality of the dangers of a flat spin imagine that mission dr toward and I was really fascinated by flat spins you usually couldn’t get out of them I’m sorry my share of our so I measurement i flew a message me 31 with low-slung wings have a playback is filled with lead pellets for the test swatch much too when you’re feeling up told me when i reached three and a half thousand meters i was to take my foot off the gas and pull the stick back as far as it could go down have you seen a Clearwater game can that really went against my instincts then I was supposed to hit the rudder I what I always set on the left even in the two-seaters I’m thinking machine is a plane went into a real flat spin or actually to blame onto a shame down at 18 spins were planned but after 11 full turns I was getting a little dizzy when you have done you can look down and picked out houses and a church tower then I started to count 11 12 13 up to 18 that was it I was supposed to pull out hard if i move the stick the wrong way I wouldn’t be sitting here now the worst thing was that the stick kept jumping around like an electric mixer It was as if the rudder was no longer there that’s a flat spin for you progress is also made in the development of rotor driven aircraft on jun 26 1936 the world’s first fully controllable helicopter the focke-wulf fw 61 makes its maiden flight on the fourth try it remains airborne for 16 minutes buildings are going up everywhere in atlas or in getting in and starting in 1936 in Blanche like where the german aviation research establishment DFL is being set up the wind tunnels here have or inspiring dimensions some are up to 14 meters in diameter wings and even entire full scale aircraft can be tested here in 1935 Germany unilaterally withdraw from the Treaty of outside during this period nearly 30 million lice mark flow into research scientists are to draw new specifications for larger planes with more powerful engines high speed and high altitude flights on the agenda Germany has some of the most modern aviation research facilities in the world and its disposal the course of it can i won the big wind tunnel was for slower planes during the years it was being built it was planned to generate air speeds of up to 65 meters per second that’s a little over 200 km/h and harding those were normal flying conditions for passenger and transport planes a fluke tiger went on the tunnels large diameter 14 and a half meters at its maximum made it suitable for testing life-size models which produced excellent results that would inform forgiveness research gets underway on a large scale by the end of the nineteen thirties several thousand people are employed in german aviation research Europe is getting smaller a flight to Rome takes just 10 hours the Yonkers you 52 becomes the epitome of a mass produced aircraft at five thousand planes it’s the most frequently built plane of its time trademarks like metal construction and low-slung wings make it one of the most modern robust and high-performance aircraft of its time scientists and Guardian get involved in the study of a mysterious phenomenon known as flood up which destroys wings and parts of a plane stabilizers elevators and runners at high speeds au 288 is put to the test in planned strike and he 219 gettin the result is the discovery of new ways to prevent flutter that are still applied in building aircraft today test flights for Project X get underway in 1938 the revolutionary new plane is propelled by a rocket after a series of setbacks the first rocket-powered message meant 163 is take off in 1941 the fighters design incorporates aerodynamic wings that are a decade before their time they were developed on gliders being flown while Germany was still subject to the restrictions set in Versailles at that time the plane speed at takeoff was unimaginable the me 163 is what’s called a flying wing aircraft it’s capable of flying almost as fast as the speed of sound in Germany designers like licorice and Horton favored flying wing aircraft or planes without a few large their visionary draft state back to their gliding days the National Socialists have been in power since nineteen thirty three military research has top priority a model of the first German aircraft carrier the Graf Zeppelin is tested one of the wind tunnels and atlas or poorly designed the vessel is never deployed in a military action more new planes are in the sky flight gathers new impetus the me-262 is the first operational turbo jet fighter aircraft by 1938 hands from behind has already developed the world’s first oboe jet engine a German scientist speaking of the voter Congress in Rome in 1935 introduces a revolutionary theory concerning lift when flying at speeds greater than that of sound metallic VAR and torture professor Scott german professor from getting in adult women attended the Congress anything but his presentation drew little attention even though he told his colleagues how to design a plane capable of flying at supersonic speeds in a dozen wings attached to the fuselage at right angles had to be scrapped instead the wings had to be angled back and became known as swept wings can have the five food aircraft wings must be redefined the theory represents an aerodynamic breakthrough that is still being applied today swept wing designs for high-speed aircraft attested in the wind tunnel and patents filed foreground adjustable wing suite which was invented in 1939 science is getting ahead of its time the idea of modifying wing sweep comes too late for the first generation of turbo jets and too early for the second generation its combat to Alicia it soon became clear that there was no way to outgun the three great economic superpowers the Soviet Union britain and the united states that so-and-so we don’t know England with our then we figured we had only one chance and that was to use quality to make up for our quantitative deficits want once or clan gates defeats it off the fun the search for a means to counter allied air superiority begins engineers to that the fees the 103 an unmanned flying bomb stood by a guidance system the world’s first cruise missile is called the v1 with v standing for vengeance weapon the Mossad brought destruction and suffering too many different generations of guided missiles are tested in the wind tunnels between 1936 and 1945 Germany becomes a center for the development of Air and Space Flight technologies that continue to impact both civilian and military aviation well into the second half of the 20th century one of the most ambitious project at this time is the development of a ballistic missile the a for the rocket is 14 meters tall weighs 14 tons and can generate 25 tonnes of thrust to promote the project the third lights most expensive and elaborate a top-secret program is initiated at painting moonda on the Baltic coast a previously unimaginable research facility and rocket factory is set up more than 6,000 scientists engineers and 13,000 support staff begin working to achieve the dream of putting a rocket into space but at the same time they’re building a new weapon that will fundamentally change the way wars are waged in the 20th century and beyond breakthroughs are made in the key technologies of electronics radio guidance and stabilization the a four-engine is 17 times more powerful than those developed before it simple easy fortunes and like instantly they build enormous research complexes that had thousands of staff members typically American you could certainly say it was big science the farm for the sake of efficiencies and to carry out all the tasks set them by the aviation industry three eight-hour shifts kept the place running around the clock in the gargantuan weapons building complex the germany and become in the 1930s and 1940s the demand for aircraft and materials test was he close Marshall day of big science had arrived progress is also being made again in the windtunnel air speeds of mac 4.4 have been generated to set a new world record in 1941 and a full prototype is set up in a test rig then a phone brown combines scientific excellence with diplomatic skill when dealing with politicians but he’s also an opportunist sending rockets to the planet is a dream the v2 missile some described as a wonder weapon is a necessary means to achieve that end from brown never expresses ethical reservations even when prisoners of war are used to build the missiles the military testing facility is a highly efficient Research Center the key to its success is everything under one roof the close ties between the state research and Industry become an example for major scientific projects in the future does a common i love the sauce object today you can objectively say for the german research and development focused not only on building rockets but on establishing the scientific principles of spaceflight on from aerodynamics to guidance Royals technician park that’s dozen dogs and anguish Alice to da y thinking all the data through Germany had already developed more advanced concepts in America and the Soviet Union rockets were being built but only on a selective ad-hoc basis we’re stuck Valek ideas are going to eloquence is to enter until nineteen forty-five only Germany conducted a consistent aviation technology development program you can say that at this time we were really far ahead all the others you can emphasize that without being presumptuous it’s a fact on which today’s experts from the east and the West agree want a client after seven years of work the first a full rocket is successfully launched on october third 1942 in Amanda it’s the first time engineers have been able to send a rocket some 100 kilometers into space the space age is dawning the pin amanda is also a symbol for the darker side of science some 30,000 prisoners died building the rockets and 5,000 more killed when they’re deployed Germany’s misuse of the fruits of its fascination with flight comes back with a vengeance but the country lives to fly another day a decade later Germany returns to the echelon of International Air and Space Research a century in flight part 2 of this documentary addresses the years from 1945 until the present flight added new dimensions to daily life it changed received limits of time and space just a few decades after ingenious and intrepid pioneers of flight tried their luck with contraptions made of slats and sail cloth engineers had mastered the art applying complex technologies to build aircraft and rockets but that was just the beginning the conquest of the skies continues french american russian and british troops march shoulder-to-shoulder through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin in 1945 for the first and the last time historic events were also taking place in pottstown the trio of leaders known as the big three Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin and harry s truman sat down to redraw the map of Europe at the end of World War two they put on a show of harmony for the camera germany is in ruins and space research is prohibited the German laboratory for aviation at berlin addressof is dismantled and carted off to the soviet union in pieces the British take the wind tunnels in getting home with them and the Americans and French harvest the fruits of victory as well a light planes have sovereignty in German airspace liftoff after the war researchers prepared to launch a four rockets in the deserts of Arizona and New Mexico the race to exploit German know how begins the top secret US special mission v 2 ships 100 German missiles and 14 tons of documents the archive from panda we in the United States in and of course in Britain France and the Soviet Union all inherited this wealth of new research that had been funded in the night late nineteen thirties and in the in the early nineteen forties in Germany the cornerstones of the space flight and rocket development programs of the coming decades are being laid but not in Germany it’s become clear that country seeking global power must have the latest technologies at their disposal among the technology is transferred as spoils of war the writers like the flat Nicole every helicopter the German aircraft now sports a u.s. star technical renovations like automatically extensible slats are incorporated in designs including what is known as the kruger nose and aircraft such as the me-262 are being put through their paces on test ranges in Texas german propulsion technologies also give the u.s. boost when it comes to developing their own new aircraft the Russians are also launching their confiscated a fours in 1947 researchers prepared to set one up at kapustin yar German knowledge is being applied to achieve Soviet aims saving trouble time and money so our brother get cock don’t we were faced with the question where and how we could continue the work being done in Germany because the Cold War had already started so we were ordered to go out and catch German rocket specialists through that their origin of the mysterious in 30 is that the Russians form what are called trophy brigades in Germany their job is to find an take with them test benches and entire production complexes their shared get there made the earlier that we built the next rocket within a year using our own material even know half of what we needed we didn’t even produce them or not in your brains right there were here but it was difficult to do everything the way the government wanted it for it norway in material were three days and that was namely just the way the Germans did but without using a single German screwing at nine a myth is the club get them here both your doctor Robert cage in 1948 we launched the r-1 rocket which was an exact copy of the view to get very bored rich take would be but we built it of our own material here when I is nurtured material the r1 is modified but based on German findings a whole missile series follows culminating in the r5 in 1956 which is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead you have your IDs are taking they took all the technologies with them the Americans and the Russians took them intensively develop them further and channeled those developments into their own industrial assembly and development must escape the most convenient that’s something that gets lost most anything could be a 4 rocket but everything that was involved with those technologies was exploited intensive Lee by both superpowers buy it and let me put in my opinion you can’t really put a number on it the Sun they saved on development costs would run into the billions got an individual’s costing us part human reparation is a post-war novelty the Allies call it a peace dividend they place German scientists and engineers in their service in some cases by force in the u.s. benefit on bomb is soon viewed as the most important poww from World War two he and his team quickly come to dominate us miss our research in 1949 they test-fire a two-stage rocket based on the a4 it reaches an altitude of 400 kilometers he was almost from a standpoint of plunder and wore a unique moment in human history because this was a case where science and technology was one of the greatest prizes that that the Allied forces wanted to see after obviously the objective of winning the war militarily and so there was a lot of improvisation going on as people were saying we really got to get take these people we really need to grab this technology and part of this was the shock that a lot of the United States took a lot more German scientists and engineers then I think anyone had ever anticipated what was started at being a moonda continues at Redstone Arsenal impossible Obama German scientists use the v2 designed to create the redstone rocket which is first used in the Korean War a decade later it is also used to put the first American astronaut Adam Shepherd into space it had a lot of influence of course when you look at that the first large American but a nuclear missile the red stone that was very much derived from the v2 the first satellite vehicle which is shown in this hall is derived from the red stone which is derived from the v2 so obviously there’s a significant amount of influence their US troops sift through the ruins in Germany looking for documents pertaining to Nazi aerospace research engineers from Boeing are also along for the ride they make a sensational discovery that and the americana followed him not to the American experts immediately recognized the significance of this document on trial and George i wrote a letter to seattle right away you can still read it in the archive at Boeing Business and improved in short what the letter says is throw away everything you’ve done up to now that we found a new wing in Germany Armitage that and fruitful I’m letter by the man who has become Boeing’s chief aerodynamic engineer George shirah the newly discovered German innovations lead to fundamental changes being made to the design of the new boeing b-47 bar a bit later engineers in the u.s. begin working on innovative turbo jets in October 1947 and f-86 with swept wings makes its maiden flight it’s a spectacular example of the benefits of utilizing the fruits of german research just two months later the first Russian fighter jet with swept wings the mig-15 takes to the skies in paris in 1955 treaties were signed that ended the occupation of western Germany nearly full sovereignty was returned to the country now the watchword is progress the West moves on to New well-being and a new lease on life even Germany’s airline Lufthansa is allowed to return to the skies after a decade on the ground the old research institutes already had a two year head start by 1953 they had reopened and started work the nineteen fifties or a time for experimentation 1954 was also a watershed year for new developments in eastern Germany a heavenly stage was being sent for a sensational presentation and competition for henchmen II the Soviet Union had helped will not bother captive in the mid-nineteen fifties be unveiled the four-engine passenger jet the bother 152 interestin but in the summer of nineteen fifty-nine the USSR refused to accept planes for use the message was unmistakable the development of civilian aircraft was to be terminated in soviet-occupied eastern Germany and fungus in the early nineteen sixties the german aviation industry moved into a new phase that lasted about a decade and then they were working on an experimental aircraft that could take off vertically as you’re building an airplane that didn’t need a runway to take off or land on had always been a vision april nineteen sixty-three saw the debut of germany’s first vertical short takeoff and landing aircraft fighter now known as the VJ 101 a high wing airplane the VJ 101 is engines were located at its wing tips they rotated from vertical to horizontal positions after the plane took off the aim was to get into and out of here almost independently of a runway and Sinclair started emphasis on that the vertical short takeoff and landing aircraft poses a particular problem when it takes off and still has no forward speed it would have to be stabilized as the runners don’t work up and they only start working at a certain air speed after the aircraft is moving it’s hanging in the air like a helicopter this thing so it has to be kept stable controlled and trimmed by other means creating systems were developed that later benefited aircraft in the nineteen seventies and eighties it’s got the fruits of vertical start aircraft development in Germany could later be seen in the tornado and in the German know how that was applied on the air basia and can still be seen in the control systems that are using the Airbus today dawnia’s do 31 is the only steal transport plane in the world that takes off vertically Europe also wants to make it into space on its own in 1962 a multilateral decision is made to build the Europa rocket and nearly all the aircraft and engine builders want in on the project Germany gets the job of making be technologically demanding upper-stage known as astris when he hits the rest into the garbage des to take if i remember correctly the first technical experiment started again in 1959 so because they could use the old classic big test improving ground-and-pound again from testicle and tone it was a big complex compound was it’s very interesting it came through the war unscathed without losing a single screw I don’t order is all but also do want starting in nineteen fifty-nine dftl our engineers and researchers came back to the compound for the first time offender they started to build the first test bench and re-equip the facilities that would later be used intensity by air know the North development cycle in bremen because link not in believe and intensive goods stored the aeronautical engineer I Gonzaga becomes the head of the facility at toen a German space flight pioneer he had already designed the supersonic silverbird spaceplane in 1943 the plant Europa rocket proved to be a flop primarily because the French British and German developed stages failed to work together after 12 unsuccessful launches the program was curtailed in 1973 after Germany regained control over its airspace in the nineteen fifties work began on the first rotary wing aircraft test flights were carried out with new prototypes but many of these designs remain incomplete at the beginning of the 1960’s dorney produces an unprecedented one-seater helicopter but there’s no market for small choppers meanwhile several German firms among the bart erasing with one another to build the first practically applicable helicopter new research complex is built during that period the dbl moves two parts varnak alone in the late nineteen fifties work also resumed xin Blanche like in getting an orphan orphan and stood guard in 1969 a VAD FL and dl merged to become the german test and research institute for aviation and space flight or DF v lr the organization’s aim is to make up for lost time by building on the successes that came in the decades before Nazi Germany’s defeat more than two decades after the closure of panda Germany reset its sights on the stars in 1969 azure becomes the first German satellite to be put into orbit the research probe is investigating the magnetosphere and the aurora borealis deduction hadn’t you are anointed sexy british german policymakers declared in 1960 that they were not going to build and develop their own missile system one Indian started but they did say that they wanted to get involved in the satellite business of country but in 1962 good with Burkle wrote an exposé that called upon Germany to build its own satellite show but it could do it didn’t bond but what did that mean woman was most of the components for satellites had to be obtained from the US not eat a car key that the Americans would also provide the rocket for the launch what that came to be known as a famous a zoo a project today it’s known as the first national satellite and it went down in history as the first project that intensively brought in industry where that was your new zealand or AG because they all supplied something and support Marcus mark the point of entry into the satellite business the success of azure enables Germany to reach an ambitious partnership with the US from 1974 onwards he lost a and he must be began studying the sum the twin soul of probes were built in germany with the u.s. taking responsibility for their launch both had an estimated life of 18 months but continued sending data back from outer space for a decade one a technological dream comes true when the first supersonic civilian carrier makes its maiden flight at speeds of mac to the Concorde premieres in 1969 and is hailed as a flying masterpiece development of the distinctive delta-shaped wings can be credited to delish kitchen man of getting in Germany and card touch working in punch fight laid the groundwork for the aircraft’s control system but the Concorde remains a luxury model only 16 of the supersonic planes are built another aircraft will soon become the pride of Europe the a300 is the first play and the Europeans build jointly with the aim of challenging us dominance in the civilian aircraft sector the Airbus is going to be more modern and economical german political leadership attends the unveiling ceremony in hamburg in 1974 the variance tape premier franciosa schloss and Hamburg mayor-council discloser are on hand 3 division of the skies has begun izod position because a dar by the mid-1960s they had managed to sort out a plan to get a joint project up and running in Europa to politics and Industry close ranks at the end of the 1960’s Germany France Spain and Britain all said they were ready to join in and gave the world the Airbus comes to clear the company airbus industries in Toulouse in 1917 was the first project the a380s to predict that I wanted in 1972 the a300 is the most modern civilian aircraft of its time maybe 600 of them are built for countries are represented in the consortium that builds a bus the division of labor is done according to expertise the British build the wings Germany part of the fuselage and the tail and French the fuselage interior and the cockpit assembly is in Toulouse from now on the name airbus comes to symbolize flying as an everyday activity Germany hosts the 1972 olympic games it’s the first time that the competition is being broadcast by a satellite together with France Germany joins in project symphony and tries to achieve independence from the US when it comes to commercial communications satellites but the failure of the Europa rocket means they have to seek us help to put their satellite into space and the u.s. refuses to use its rocket for commercial purposes to increase their political influence in the club of countries that have mastered spaceflight western europe’s nations form the european space agency asset in 1975 their task is to promote the scientific and technological interests of its member countries the first German to venture into space comes from the eastern part of the divided country on august 26 1978 Sigmund teen hurtles into space on a Russian Soyuz rocket for seven days in carries out experiments aboard the Russian space station Salyut 6 using a new multispectral camera the MK f6b photographs the earth the new device sets the global technological standard for space cameras East German experiments and technologies are also carried into space aboard Soviet space probes East Germany is pursuing a small but technically ambitious space program the Airbus family is growing and with it a whole new series of technologies a new concept for steering a plan comes to fruition with the a 310 fly-by-wire systems and a fully electronic cockpit pave the way for planes guided only by a pilot and the copilot in 1972 DF v lr gets its own test aircraft the hfp 320 hands jet it becomes one of the most important research aircraft for aeronautical engineering and flight guidance the hands Gentiles used to test a revolutionary innovation in guidance technology in 1973 and in flight test of fly-by-wire is carried out to ensure it can be installed in new models of the Airbus Riley signal direct the signals go through a computer instead of going directly from the pilot to the rudders comment that means the computer can be programmed so that first recognizes the aircraft’s limit and then observes them as the floor so the pilot can’t make it fly too fast or too slow the plane won’t do it corrects itself bookmark doesn’t and the cockpits of all the airbus aircraft identity nearly identical including the indicators and instrumentation fast in this barn where the changes are only stored in the brain of the computer environment it’s the computer knows i’m sitting in an a340 upon a 320 and in future i’ll be in an a380 out there except for small differences the pilot is always in fronted with the same cockpit with the civic forces the a310 is not only the most highly developed aircraft of its time it is also the first civilian airliner in the world to have supercritical carbon fiber wings designed for air speeds just below the speed of sound the wind tunnels at dftl are they used to carry out air flow simulations on supercritical wings test of air resistance serve to develop a new wing template for passenger planes flying at higher altitudes at speeds approaching the supersonic range the competition hearts up it isn’t proof you avoided the airbus a310 marks the first time that a civilian airliner was equipped with this profile in Europe the USA initially objected comments became common knowledge wrappers and broadcast in was our and there were fears of a lawsuit based on patent violations cuanto thomas cooper fortunately it is possible to prove as a sort of german patent had already been issued for the technology in 1943 so does the American claim was moved Connor in phila Clark if that had been the case they could have been legal problems with a 310 million Colonel Hardesty chart Europe creates a sensation by getting into space on its own the failure of the Europa rocket notwithstanding the Europeans work together to make their own booster rocket resulting in one of the most successful carriers of all time the area the museum we have to see to it that we were standing on our own two feet and became as independent as possible from the Americans our main partner at the time about that they also knew that they would only succeed if we had the most important part as well own payload carrying Rockets are key so I the nineteen seventies we were able to build satellites on our own without help from the u.s. having components delivered from the US was no longer necessary but if you wanted to launch them then you need to put something on the launch pad in order to be completely independent the first area and departs on its maiden flight from its launch site in french guiana on Christmas Eve 1979 never before has a launch being so smooth arion is also alone at the top when it comes to commercial success in the 1980s and 1990s the Aryan for cannot be beaten when it comes to launching the world’s satellites Germany also joins the u.s. space shuttle program for the federal republic it’s the start of manned spaceflight the european space laboratory is conceived and developed in germany Spacelab is tailor-made to fit in the space shuttles cargo bay under German leadership Europe space program has a stroke of genius even though it doesn’t have its own rocket for manned spaceflight European astronauts are still able to take part in routine mission in space the arrangement is unprecedented as its Spacelab status as the most ambitious project to date in the history of space science on German astronaut wolf mailbox first flight in 1983 he accompanies Spacelab into orbit based on weight alone Spacelab is packed with more instruments than any other previously launched European satellite never before have so many experiments been run on a single mission by decommissioning in 1998 16 missions have been run during its 181 space days Spacelab gave 110 astronauts a base from which to carry out 720 experiments space that by actors and the Morgan Spacelab could be described as Germany’s dowry of incidence financier inflation and the Americans profited from it immensely in estimating financing for the first time we supplied what was going to be carried in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle blah blah is complete the lab was completely integrated in the cargo bay that gave German scientists and researchers a place to run their experiments thought experiment under to bring the cord on the configuration has continued to work until this day besides on the international space station as well thats along just as soon meter Germany runs the d1 and d2 missions zero gravity research is the name for the new space discipline being promoted by Germany’s political leadership Germany uses Spacelab intensively for the first time operations within the shuttles cargo bay are not led by the US instead Mission Control is at the German Aerospace Center at orphan orphan on the seven-day flight announced Messerschmitt and laminate floor carry out research together with their colleagues they orbit the Earth 110 times the data gathered provides researchers enough material for years of exciting work 75 experiments were carried into orbit on board d1 among them were probes of the effect of zero gravity on biological and medical processes in 1993 and struggle and always found her take off on the d2 mission the europeanization of aeronautics research is also progressing in 1980 the german dutch wind tunnel begins operation along with it germany takes a step closer to the pinnacle of global aviation research airflow tests are carried out on a model of the airbus a340 and most planes have become serious competitors for those produced by the american aviation giant Boeing Germany sentence course for the future of air transportation with the addition of the VFW 614 a task to its research fleet starting in nineteen eighty-six the new aircraft gives german aviation research the first flying simulator the plane allows researchers to gain insights that cannot be obtained by computer simulation with the antis the behavior of new plane designs can actually be simulated in fright carbon fiber construction technology ashes in a new age for aviation and a technological leap in international aircraft manufacturing supervisor had this design has enormous advantages my condo surfaces are much smoother than would be like they were made of wood or metal coil system at the time above all you can create shapes that are significantly more aerodynamic denominator farm and thereby started using carbon fiber instead of fiberglass with smaller surfaces oils control system surfaces spoilers and then complete tell you it’s complete like they had to use carbon fiber because of the need for stiffness as far as being 250 cats on father on called if a bus was a pioneer in this area airbus was the first company that made tell units completely out of carbon composites or father here is data on november nine 1989 the berlin wall comes down german reunification brings with it the door of a new era for German Air and Space Research dftl r becomes dlr times are also changing in space policy elsewhere leading to intensive use of the russian space station mir by Western European astronauts in 1992 class deeply flattered a test pilot from the German armed forces the Bundeswehr goes into space as a research cosmonaut on a mission to me of my body follows in 1994 at this time Germany in particular is able to profit from decades of clothes East German contact with Moscow in 1995 Thomas Leiter goes on a space mission for united Germany he spends 179 days aboard mir it’s the longest time in on russian cosmonaut has spent in space preparations for setting up the International Space Station the ISS are beginning Lionheart event also works aboard me in 1997 together with Russian colleagues he returns from space to land in the snows of the Kazakh steps a corporate jets the Falcon 20 e that belongs to the German center for aerospace research dlr has been used for more than three decades to investigate aircraft emissions the Falcon flies in the exhaust of a large passenger airline today dlr has the largest fleet of research aircraft and helicopters in Europe research is also taking place to make planes quieter by minimizing the amount of noise aircraft engines make a noise testing is carried out by dlr in cooperation with lufthansa new noise reducing engine technologies and designs introducing noise from airstreams should make planes quieter by nineteen seventies growth rates for air traffic were already between six and ten percent and the volume is being transported have doubled every 10 years as a result economy has long since become one of the most important criteria for aviation video suite 220 nuts and deer last tower simulator new technologies are developed and tested that are aimed at reducing the unfavorable aspect of increases in air traffic by simulating traffic patterns in German airspace bottlenecks can be detected early on and avoided the most complex environmental research satellite of all times is being built at EAD s asked Leon influence half and envy sat can multi-task with the best of them and is the pride of German engineering since 2002 and this and has been analyzing developments about the polar regions oceans and continents on board is a german dutch instrument scheme a key which can precisely to take trace gases in different layers of the atmosphere that makes sense at one of the most indispensable aids for monitoring compliance with the kyoto protocol and for crisis management data from space are often the soul sources of comprehensive information on local conditions after severe storms floods or earthquakes in 2007 astronaut Gerhardt teeler join the SRT emission the task of which was to produce a precise 3d map of the world the German space to RG sites asset further afield in 1997 the cassini-huygens space probe was a joint European US mission to Saturn and one of its moons Titan top of the lady spacecraft on a very rich striking distance of Saturn in 2004 German scientists are also exploring the planets Venus Mars and Jupiter Georgia fossil hierdie the fruits of research done a German Institute can be found everywhere often time but I whether it’s the title for the landing and Huygens Cassini and in mass express think about the Mars Express tunnel vision that means we have very good linkage between research and Industry of person dustman these appliances in life you have to remember to keep watering this plant conscientiously because today we’re in a position to be completely independent when it comes to spaceflight Indians we don’t need to rely on help from anyone today tips we can handle big projects by ourselves thanks to the developments that began in the mid-1970s we don’t have anything to be ashamed of in the summer of 2003 Europe’s first independent mission to another planet the Mars Express is launched on board is a unique high-resolution stereo camera built at dlr it enables the camera to create high resolution images of planetary services in color and 3d the results have a much broader audience than planetary researchers after 45 years of the closest cooperation in space flight Europe is now on equal footing with the US and Russia it is autonomous without insisting on AutoKey after France Germany is the second most important partner in building the area and five German engineers test the engines and design develop and build the upper stage to this password reattach the eaters all space flight today is the legacy of German pioneers and the result of achievements made in Germany a posse not know Matt normal mind continually developing technology even now Germany is developing technologies that are unique new ways and from the plastic balls that well basically the actual park motion after all at esa we have to know because we publish pictures of Mars on the internet daily the engine can be are plenty more sure these images come from an extremely precise three-dimensional camera that was developed and built in berlin zoo or the Rosetta is a small and that’s going to touch down on a comment in the number of years it was also designed and developed in germany many developed beyond my daughter yet so the tradition is being kept alive even when other countries contribute to the technological advances that are being made today a sympathetic music don’t stop illumise recap little ball point the sky’s still the limit with Europe’s global satellite navigation system Galileo the aim is to provide the world with reliable positioning information the civilian project 430 planned Galileo satellites promise to be more reliable for users on the ground than the US or Russian systems through its many applications whether it’s in heavy traffic or the remotest of barriers the governmental system demonstrates the immediate benefits of spaceflight for daily life on Earth since 1984 a number of countries have been pursuing the aim of operating an international space station the end of the Cold War paved the way for the ISS project becoming reality one of the greatest technological ventures in human history it’s not only service research that promotes understanding between people’s in 2006 Thomas later became the first German astronaut to work aboard the ISS and outside the spacecraft during the first long-term European mission on the ISS light i carried out 33 European experiments he’s also the most experienced astronaut in the SR crew two floors SD is intentional or purchase the ISS is undoubtedly a moment and technological development that will last beyond this period ends in disaster i see the point of this station less than a purely scientific sense than as a station that links political systems to one another deeply dishes team Madonna it’s a station that led to international cooperation between east and west coast this and as a political symbol it has already achieved a great deal its politicians some boy pussie shenanigans sending our eyes a German red team built the research laboratory columbus as a successor to Spacelab the new project also comprised Europe’s contribution to the International Space Station Mission Control is based at the german Space Flight Control Center at orphan orphan is possible if err solid without teamwork nothing can be achieved in spaceflight CRTC expecting every engineer every scientist and every technician has a place on the team Astana be an astronaut can only be in orbit because on the ground hundreds of people out there who have trained him and to make it possible to monitor what’s happening on the space station all clean is that order key-keeper medals over years as possible especially special it looks at that without every single one of those engineers technicians and scientists and astronauts is unable to do his job is your feet or spaceflight Operations intrinsically involved technical risk they demand team work through this teamwork everyone plays a key role call ID keep figure shotgun blast the vessel Germany’s position in there is is very strong and then frankly limited only by the German government’s willingness to put resources into the enterprise let me say Germany of course built the Columbus module which next year sorry in 08 and it’s all it’s almost seven in 08 wolf will be flown up to the space station and it will augment the research capability on the space station today by fully fifty percent since I mean that’s a tremendous accomplishment in the early shuttle era germany was involved in the building of the Spacelab modules d1 and d2 looking to the future of course germany is part of the European Space Agency which has now long time for a long time been a partner in the u.s. manned spaceflight program i hope that will continue built in bremen the Columbus lab has space on board for for astronauts to carry out research commissioned by scientists on earth they will carry out long-term experiments in zero gravity conditions German astronaut and Schlegel will accompany the Columbus laboratory to the ISS and one of the world’s largest aircraft the a380 is being cleared for takeoff the largest passenger carrier on the globe is being readied for mass production aeroelasticity tests are being carried out under the guidance of the dlr it’s a test every newly developed aircraft has to be subjected to you can plug for short is a loved one’s I basic research is what we build on industry industry doesn’t SVD Lars primary function is to work together with scientific institutes and colleges and so forth looking for or who we then cooperate with in many diverse ways advisor we use their achievements and basic findings in Applied Research and incorporate them in technological developments for Shonda claw done and lisas loads orner deal without the work they do to begin with we could never make our innovations a reality and garnish disorderly germany is one of the world’s leaders in the development of oscillation technologies used to test flutter in aircraft the a380 is the pride of the Europeans and a prestige project a new star in the skies the most highly developed aircraft at the outset the 21st century or at the miracle of aviation is by no means a thing of the past since the infancy of motorized flights more than a century ago taking to the skies has lost none of its fascination German engineers and scientists have left their mark on technical and scientific progress in many disciplines and Air and Space Research continue to reflect the daring to make discoveries and eternal curiosity the conquest of the skies continues I had your brother person around it doesn’t have TV coverage of the page and a man they got the black up now you’re gonna be getting a TV picture failures we are getting a Victor Kilian out want all great

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